The circularity of the value structure, central to the Schwartz model, has many theoretical and methodological implications. Presentations in this symposium use the idea of the circularity of the value structure to make theoretical predictions for relations between values and other theoretical constructs of interest (the first two presentations) and to explain value change (the last two presentations). Schwartz et al. use the circle of values to predict the emotions people desire to experience. Cieciuch et al., inspired by the circle of values, propose an integrative model of relations between values and traits within a circumplex of personality meta-traits. Puohiniemi et al. use the circularity of values in order to develop a proposal for how to compare value data collected with different methods across time. Sortheix et al. use the circle of values to explain change of values among young adults in response to the global financial crisis in Europe.
Chair Details: Jan Cieciuch, University of Zurich, Switzerland
Co-Chair Details: Eldad Davidov, University of Zurich, Switzerland
Discussant: Shalom H. Schwartz
Values as bases for desired emotions across cultures
Shalom H. Schwartz, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel and National Research University Higher School of Economics, Russia
Maya Tamir, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel
Claudio V. Torres, University of Brazil, Brazil
Emotions inform people about states of the world. Because values are conceptions of desired states of the world, we hypothesized that the more people endorse certain values, the more they desire emotions that are consistent with these values. We tested this hypothesis in eight samples (N = 2,328) from distinct world cultural regions. As predicted, across cultural samples, the more people valued self-transcendence (e.g., benevolence) the more they wanted to feel empathy and compassion; the more they valued self-enhancement (e.g., power) the more they wanted to feel pride and anger; the more they valued openness to change (e.g., self-direction) the more they wanted to feel interest and excitement; and the more they valued conservation (e.g., tradition) the more they wanted to feel calmness.
Circular structure of values within the circumplex of personality meta-traits
Jan Cieciuch, University of Zurich, Switzerland
Wlodzimierz Strus, Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski University in Warsaw, Poland
Personal value priorities (the circular model of Schwartz) and personality traits (the Big Five of Costa and McCrae) belong to the most important individual psychological characteristics in cross-cultural research. Empirically supported relations between these constructs, although theoretically meaningful, have not led so far to the development of a comprehensive model of personality that includes both values and traits. The recently proposed Circumplex of Personality Metatraits (CPM; Strus, Cieciuch, Rowiﾅ_ski, 2014), built on two higher-order factors of personality (Alpha and Beta), suggests such an integrative model. The CPM is inspired by the idea of value circularity and considers recent criticisms of the Big Five model, thus suggesting Big Two rather than Big Five personality traits for better replicability in cross-cultural research. The empirical verification of the integration of values and traits in the CPM model is presented in a series of studies conducted in Poland (N > 2,500).
Value structure and improving the comparability of different inventories in the analysis of time series
Martti Puohiniemi, Independent Researcher, Finland
Markku Verkasalo, Institute of Behavioural Sciences, University of Helsinki, Finland
Several inventories have been developed to measure the values in Schwartz’s value theory. All measure the same concepts, but the value means they yield are not comparable. To improve the comparability, reliability, and validity of the inventories we use factor analysis. We compute the factor structures of values, rotate the factors to correspond to the theoretical value dimensions, and then compute factor scores for respondents. Next, we harmonize standard deviations of the variables using time series data as well as the means of the starting points. This takes into account the entire value structure of respondents and improves the comparability of the two basic value dimensions. This method removes no true differences between inventories. For the analysis we used SVS data (1991-2015) and ESS21 data (2002-2014). Results suggest that, over time, the similarity of value development is very high, especially for the conservation ‘ openness to change dimension.