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Harmony in the Home: Effects of Parental Child-Rearing Disagreement on Early Childhood Behavior Problems in Turkey

Socio-cultural transition in Turkey has led to significant changes in family dynamics over the last decade (Kagitcibasi et al., 2005). Marital conflict and parental disagreement have become prevalent causes of family dissolution (Demir, 2013). Prior research has shown that harmony between parents predicts children`s socio-emotional development (Teubert & Pinquart, 2010). Therefore, this study examined parental child-rearing disagreement (PCD) in Turkish married families by mothers` and teachers` self-reports for preschool (N=57, Mage=4.33, 29 girls) and elementary school-aged (N=41, Mage=8.15, 21 boys) children. Hierarchical regression analyzes revealed that, when controlling for marital satisfaction, PCD predicted only parent-reported behavior problems. Moreover, the effect of PCD was moderated by school level and child`s gender such that the strongest association was for preschool girls` externalizing behaviors. Findings highlighted PCD`s unique influence on young girls` externalizing behaviors as well as suggested that parents and teachers might be establishing novel expectations for child development in Turkey.

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Creative Boost: Unleashing Creativity using tDCS in Japan

Our aim was to explore cultural differences in creativity by examining the role of the lIFG using tDCS. We hypothesized that inhibition of the lIFG using cathodal stimulation will enhance creativity by decreasing evaluation stringency.

We compared Israeli and Japanese students on their creativity level. Creativity was measured by AUT (Guilford, 1978). Evaluation was measured by a new task; evaluating the appropriateness of ideas generated by others. Israelis were more creative and evaluated others’ ideas as more appropriate compared to Japanese.

Then, we recruited 30 Japanese students and divided them into two groups (Anodal/Cathodal). Each participant underwent the experiment twice: under stimulation and under sham.

Significant differences were found in both tasks: Anodal stimulation decreased creativity and the rating of appropriateness compared to sham, while Cathodal stimulation increased both, indicating less stringent evaluation.

Thus, temporary inhibition of the evaluation network may influence creativity.

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Perception of Russia in the Baltic Countries: Memory, Identity, and Conflict

As a basic unit of sociolinguistic inquiry, the family context has been traditionally placed at a central position in its key role when it comes to transmitting a particular language from generation to generation (Fishman 1991). I conducted individual semi-structured in-depth interviews with 30 couples from Russian-Estonian mixed families. The couples were chosen to reflect the sociolinguistic diversity of Estonian regions: the bilingual capital Tallinn, the dominantly Russian-speaking Ida-Viru County (in north-eastern Estonia) and the dominantly Estonian-speaking southern Estonia. There were also three different age groups (25-39, 40-59 and over 60 years old). The couples all represent the traditional family model. The interview consisted of three parts: (1) the socialization of each individual, (2) the socialization of the couple, and (3) the socialization of the children. My approach provided a deeper understanding of how mixed couples experience and shape processes of transmission through the use of linguistic and cultural resources.

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Culture 2.0: Socio-cultural elements of relationships lived online

Symposium Abstract
An estimated 2 billion people around the globe use social network sites (SNS). Research suggests that this proliferation of new media will homogenize interpersonal processes: showing off, amassing large interpersonal networks, and independent identities will become the norm. This symposium, however, pushes back on this technologically-deterministic stance. Papers presented here argue that culture, too, impacts ICT use. In-depth interviews of young social-media users in Japan (Paper 1), surveys of Facebook users in the US and France (Paper 2), and cross-national comparisons from within East Asia (Paper 3), argue the acquisition and maintenance of peers on social media is moderated by existing cultural practices. Empirical evidence is also presented that links offline social structures to interpersonal outcomes associated with SNS use (Paper 4). Overall, the symposium offers strong evidence for SNS users’ shaping of ICT along existing cultural and social realities. The discussant is a researcher in internet psychology and culture.

Chair Details: Robert Thomson, Hokkaido University, Japan
Discussant: Kei Fuji, University of Tsukuba, Japan

Presentation 1
Friending la francaise: Identifying culturally based Facebook friending strategies used by French and Americans
Genavee Brown, Universite Rennes 2, France
Nicolas Michinov, Universite Rennes 2, France
Josepsh Trimble, Western Washington University, USA
Facebook, a globally used social network, provides similar technological affordances across cultures. However, studies show differences in Facebook use serve differing relational needs in societies with varying levels of individualism. France and the US, Western countries differing in individualism, are interesting points of comparison because most studies on Facebook use compare Western and Eastern countries. In the US, a highly individualistic society, amassing social connections is valued. In France, a less individualistic society, maintaining fewer but closer relationships is important. First-year university students (257 French, 166 American) completed Facebook use questionnaires. Americans had larger networks, more distant ties, and communicated less with close and distant ties on Facebook than French. In other words, Americans accumulate ties but do not communicate with them, whereas French only friend people with whom they actively communicate; they have opposing Facebook friending strategies that meet their specific relational needs, congruous with differing levels of individualism.

Presentation 2
Societal differences in bridging social capital on social network sites: Relational mobility as an explanatory factor
Robert Thomson, Hokkaido University, Japan
Adriana Manago, Western Washington University, United States
Chelsea Melton, Western Washington University, United States
Previous research shows that social network site (SNS) users in East Asian countries, such as Japan, have significantly smaller online network sizes than SNS users in the West. Why does this difference exist, and what implications does this have for lauded bridging capital benefits of SNS use? We propose that relational mobility ‘ the degree of options regarding interpersonal relationships in a society (Yuki et al., 2007; 2012) ‘ can explain SNS network size differences, and may indirectly limit the degree to which SNS use fosters bridging social capital. To test this proposition, we surveyed Facebook and Twitter users in Japan and the US. Results indicated that Japan SNS users had smaller network sizes, and less bridging social capital. Moreover, these differences were mediated by societal differences in relational mobility. This suggests that the structure of offline interpersonal relationships impacts SNS use, and may impose limits on SNS-related social capital

Presentation 3 (Cancelled)
A Comparative Study of SNS Users between Japan, US, Taiwan and China: Disclosure of Personal Information and Network Homogeneity
Kenichi Ishii, University of Tsukuba, Japan
This study compares Facebook users between Japan, US, Taiwan, and Renren users in China, via an online survey conducted in these four countries in 2012/2013. Results indicate, Japanese users have the smallest number of friends on Facebook, show a higher level of homogeneity in their friendship network with higher proportion of off-line friends. Japanese users are less likely to disclose personally identifiable information although Japanese users most frequently read and post messages on Facebook among the four countries. In contrast, Chinese and Taiwanese people are most likely to disclose personal information on Facebook. Also, only Japanese users show a positive and significant correlation between network homogeneity, number of Facebook friends, and disclosure of personal information. These results suggest that, unlike SNS users from the US, Taiwan and China, Japanese users depend more on off-line homogeneous relationships in their friending processes on Facebook.

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Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Its Emic Relatives: Perspective of (Cross-) Cultural Psychological Research

Based on our previous etic studies from in Germany, Switzerland, North Caucasian states and China, we developed a socio-interpersonal model (Maercker & Horn, 2013), which encompasses social-affective, interpersonal and cultural predictors of PTSD. To extend this model, literature on emic expressions of trauma-related syndromes was collected from psychosocial or anthropological sources. Syndromes were ordered along the following conceptual frameworks: ethnogeography, reference to cultural values, body or soul reference, and metaphorical imagery. Shifting from an etic view on PTSD towards an emic expression of trauma sequelae is promising for both cultural and cross-cultural understandings of the concerned phenomena. The conventional PTSD definition is deeply routed in societies in which self-expression and secular-rational values are prominent. By contrast, in more traditional world-regions oriented towards survival values, somatic expressions and spirit reference prevail. A culturally-informed consideration of trauma sequelae will deepen our understanding of hitherto unresolved questions in PTSD research.

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Consequences of the circular motivational structure of values

Symposium Abstract
The circularity of the value structure, central to the Schwartz model, has many theoretical and methodological implications. Presentations in this symposium use the idea of the circularity of the value structure to make theoretical predictions for relations between values and other theoretical constructs of interest (the first two presentations) and to explain value change (the last two presentations). Schwartz et al. use the circle of values to predict the emotions people desire to experience. Cieciuch et al., inspired by the circle of values, propose an integrative model of relations between values and traits within a circumplex of personality meta-traits. Puohiniemi et al. use the circularity of values in order to develop a proposal for how to compare value data collected with different methods across time. Sortheix et al. use the circle of values to explain change of values among young adults in response to the global financial crisis in Europe.

Chair Details: Jan Cieciuch, University of Zurich, Switzerland
Co-Chair Details: Eldad Davidov, University of Zurich, Switzerland
Discussant: Shalom H. Schwartz

Presentation 1
Values as bases for desired emotions across cultures
Shalom H. Schwartz, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel and National Research University Higher School of Economics, Russia
Maya Tamir, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel
Claudio V. Torres, University of Brazil, Brazil
Emotions inform people about states of the world. Because values are conceptions of desired states of the world, we hypothesized that the more people endorse certain values, the more they desire emotions that are consistent with these values. We tested this hypothesis in eight samples (N = 2,328) from distinct world cultural regions. As predicted, across cultural samples, the more people valued self-transcendence (e.g., benevolence) the more they wanted to feel empathy and compassion; the more they valued self-enhancement (e.g., power) the more they wanted to feel pride and anger; the more they valued openness to change (e.g., self-direction) the more they wanted to feel interest and excitement; and the more they valued conservation (e.g., tradition) the more they wanted to feel calmness.

Presentation 2
Circular structure of values within the circumplex of personality meta-traits
Jan Cieciuch, University of Zurich, Switzerland
Wlodzimierz Strus, Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski University in Warsaw, Poland
Personal value priorities (the circular model of Schwartz) and personality traits (the Big Five of Costa and McCrae) belong to the most important individual psychological characteristics in cross-cultural research. Empirically supported relations between these constructs, although theoretically meaningful, have not led so far to the development of a comprehensive model of personality that includes both values and traits. The recently proposed Circumplex of Personality Metatraits (CPM; Strus, Cieciuch, Rowiナ_ski, 2014), built on two higher-order factors of personality (Alpha and Beta), suggests such an integrative model. The CPM is inspired by the idea of value circularity and considers recent criticisms of the Big Five model, thus suggesting Big Two rather than Big Five personality traits for better replicability in cross-cultural research. The empirical verification of the integration of values and traits in the CPM model is presented in a series of studies conducted in Poland (N > 2,500).

Presentation 3
Value structure and improving the comparability of different inventories in the analysis of time series
Martti Puohiniemi, Independent Researcher, Finland
Markku Verkasalo, Institute of Behavioural Sciences, University of Helsinki, Finland
Several inventories have been developed to measure the values in Schwartz’s value theory. All measure the same concepts, but the value means they yield are not comparable. To improve the comparability, reliability, and validity of the inventories we use factor analysis. We compute the factor structures of values, rotate the factors to correspond to the theoretical value dimensions, and then compute factor scores for respondents. Next, we harmonize standard deviations of the variables using time series data as well as the means of the starting points. This takes into account the entire value structure of respondents and improves the comparability of the two basic value dimensions. This method removes no true differences between inventories. For the analysis we used SVS data (1991-2015) and ESS21 data (2002-2014). Results suggest that, over time, the similarity of value development is very high, especially for the conservation ‘ openness to change dimension.

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Effects of Self-Efficacy, Social Support and Religiosity on Twelfth-Grade Students’ Test Anxiety in Indonesia

National Examination is one annual important agenda in Indonesia’s senior high school, which often creates certain level of anxiety for participating students. This study was conducted to determine the effects of self-efficacy and social support, two factors that have been studied extensively, in predicting twelfth-grade students’ test anxiety in Indonesia. Under the cultural framework of Indonesian society, religiosity variable was added to examine its effect on predicting twelfth-grade students’ test anxiety in Indonesia. Five hundred and fifteen twelfth-grade students, from seven religious affiliated schools in Indonesia, participated in this study. Research results indicated the important role of self-efficacy in predicting twelfth-grade students’ test anxiety (β= -.20, p<.01) as well as the important role of gender in predicting twelfth-grade students’ test anxiety (β= .14, p<.01). The results also indicated that there was a significant positive correlation between mistrust in God and twelfth-grade students’ test anxiety (r(513) = .10, p < .01).

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The Impact of Self-Monitoring of Facebook Use on the Self-Regulation of Filipino College Freshmen Students Using Standardized Diaries

This study investigated the effects of self-monitoring of Facebook use on students’ self-regulation. Twenty-one college freshmen students participated in the study. For two weeks, the students were asked to monitor the duration of daily Facebook use and each night answered an online Facebook standardized diary on time spent using Facebook and self-regulation particularly schoolwork-related goal attainment. Data were analyzed using a One-Way Repeated Measures ANOVA. Findings revealed that self-monitoring of Facebook use was significantly related to both duration of Facebook use and students’ self-regulation. There were overall significant differences between means of duration in Facebook use and self-regulation scores within the two-week period. There was also a significant decrease in Facebook time and significant increase in self-regulation scores. Students perceived that monitoring their Facebook use made them more aware of actual time spent using Facebook and how this can be a great source of distraction from doing schoolwork.

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Are Social-Service Students More Positive towards Cultural and Sexual Minorities than Hard-Science Students?

Social-service University programs hope to develop culturally competent graduates who will be not only positive towards their clients regardless of their cultural or sexual belonging but also positive about people and sensitive social topics in general. The current study examined the cultural orientation of Israeli social work students in their last study semester towards the Ethiopian minority and homosexuals, compared to hard-science students, as well as their attitudes towards abortion and mixed-cultural marriages. One hundred eighty eight social work students and 184 hard-science students were recruited from difference academic institutions. Study findings revealed that while social workers were less separatist and more integrationist for Ethiopians, compared to their counterparts, they were less separatist but not more integrationist for homosexuals. Social workers were much more integrationist towards Ethiopian than homosexuals. Participants’ integration/separation orientations were respectively positively/negatively linked to indicators of intergroup relations, and a mediation role of intergroup anxiety was found.

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Feature-Based Biases in Black Americans: Evidence from Focus Groups

Research on Afrocentric features bias has generally focused on the instigator’s perspective and examined how perceivers react toward Black Americans with different degrees of Afrocentric features. However, the effects of Afrocentric features from the target’s perspective are still unclear. We conducted 15 focus groups at two different institutions in the US to explore the nature of Afrocentric features bias in Black college students. Participants discussed a number of different words/phrases that exist within a Black community to describe skin tone, facial features and other within-group physical characteristics. In all focus groups, participants agreed skin tone is an important Afrocentric feature impacting lives of Black Americans. Participants also discussed their experiences with and perceptions of hair texture and body type. In contrast, participants did not elaborate on facial features such as shape and size of nose or lips. Implications for future Afrocentric features research are discussed.

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